Networking Basics

A network is a group of computers, printers, and other devices that are connected together with cables. The sharing of data and resources. Information travels over the cables, allowing network users to exchange documents & data with each other, print to the same printers, and generally share any hardware or software that is connected to the network. Each computer, printer, or other peripheral device that is connected to the network is called a node. Networks can have tens, thousands, or even millions of nodes.
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The two most popular types of network cabling are twisted-pair (also known as 10BaseT) and thin coax (also known as 10Base2). 10BaseT cabling looks like ordinary telephone wire, except that it has 8 wires inside instead of 4. Thin coax looks like the copper coaxial cabling that’s often used to connect a VCR to a TV set.
Network Adapter:

A network computer is connected to the network cabling with a network interface card, (also called a “NIC”, “nick”, or network adapter). Some NICs are installed inside of a computer: the PC is opened up and a network card is plugged directly into one of the computer’s internal expansion slots. 286, 386, and many 486 computers have 16-bit slots, so a 16-bit NIC is needed. Faster computers, like high-speed 486s and Pentiums, , often have 32-bit, or PCI slots. These PCs require 32-bit NICs to achieve the fastest networking speeds possible for speed-critical applications like desktop video, multimedia, publishing, and databases. And if a computer is going to be used with a Fast Ethernet network, it will need a network adapter that supports 100Mbps data speeds as well.


The last piece of the networking puzzle is called a hub. A hub is a box that is used to gather groups of PCs together at a central location with 10BaseT cabling. If you’re networking a small group of computers together, you may be able to get by with a hub, some 10BaseT cables, and a handful of network adapters. Larger networks often use a thin coax “backbone” that connects a row of 10BaseT hubs together. Each hub, in turn, may connect a handful of computer together using 10BaseT cabling, which allows you to build networks of tens, hundreds, or thousands of nodes.

Like network cards, hubs are available in both standard (10Mbps) and Fast Ethernet (100Mbps) versions.

LANs (Local Area Networks)

A network is any collection of independent computers that communicate with one another over a shared network medium. LANs are networks usually confined to a geographic area, such as a single building or a college campus. LANs can be small, linking as few as three computers, but often link hundreds of computers used by thousands of people. The development of standard networking protocols and media has resulted in worldwide proliferation of LANs throughout business and educational organizations.

WANs (Wide Area Networks)

Often a network is located in multiple physical places. Wide area networking combines multiple LANs that are geographically separate. This is accomplished by connecting the different LANs using services such as dedicated leased phone lines, dial-up phone lines (both synchronous and asynchronous), satellite links, and data packet carrier services. Wide area networking can be as simple as a modem and remote access server for employees to dial into, or it can be as complex as hundreds of branch offices globally linked using special routing protocols and filters to minimize the expense of sending data sent over vast distances.


The Internet is a system of linked networks that are worldwide in scope and facilitate data communication services such as remote login, file transfer, electronic mail, the World Wide Web and newsgroups.

With the meteoric rise in demand for connectivity, the Internet has become a communications highway for millions of users. The Internet was initially restricted to military and academic institutions, but now it is a full-fledged conduit for any and all forms of information and commerce. Internet websites now provide personal, educational, political and economic resources to every corner of the planet.


With the advancements made in browser-based software for the Internet, many private organizations are implementing intranets. An intranet is a private network utilizing Internet-type tools, but available only within that organization. For large organizations, an intranet provides an easy access mode to corporate information for employees.


Ethernet is the most popular physical layer LAN technology in use today. Other LAN types include Token Ring, Fast Ethernet, Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI), Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) and LocalTalk. Ethernet is popular because it strikes a good balance between speed, cost and ease of installation. These benefits, combined with wide acceptance in the computer marketplace and the ability to support virtually all popular network protocols, make Ethernet an ideal networking technology for most computer users today. The Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) defines the Ethernet standard as IEEE Standard 802.3. This standard defines rules for configuring an Ethernet network as well as specifying how elements in an Ethernet network interact with one another. By adhering to the IEEE standard, network equipment and network protocols can communicate efficiently.


Network protocols are standards that allow computers to communicate. A protocol defines how computers identify one another on a network, the form that the data should take in transit, and how this information is processed once it reaches its final destination. Protocols also define procedures for handling lost or damaged transmissions or “packets.” TCP/IP (for UNIX, Windows NT, Windows 95 and other platforms), IPX (for Novell NetWare), DECnet (for networking Digital Equipment Corp. computers), AppleTalk (for Macintosh computers), and NetBIOS/NetBEUI (for LAN Manager and Windows NT networks) are the main types of network protocols in use today.

Although each network protocol is different, they all share the same physical cabling. This common method of accessing the physical network allows multiple protocols to peacefully coexist over the network media, and allows the builder of a network to use common hardware for a variety of protocols. This concept is known as “protocol independence,” which means that devices that are compatible at the physical and data link layers allow the user to run many different protocols over the same medium.


A network topology is the geometric arrangement of nodes and cable links in a LAN, and is used in two general configurations: bus and star. These two topologies define how nodes are connected to one another. A node is an active device connected to the network, such as a computer or a printer. A node can also be a piece of networking equipment such as a hub, switch or a router. A bus topology consists of nodes linked together in a series with each node connected to a long cable or bus. Many nodes can tap into the bus and begin communication with all other nodes on that cable segment. A break anywhere in the cable will usually cause the entire segment to be inoperable until the break is repaired. Examples of bus topology include 10BASE2 and 10BASE5.

10BASE-T Ethernet and Fast Ethernet use a star topology, in which access is controlled by a central computer. Generally a computer is located at one end of the segment, and the other end is terminated in central location with a hub. Because UTP is often run in conjunction with telephone cabling, this central location can be a telephone closet or other area where it is convenient to connect the UTP segment to a backbone. The primary advantage of this type of network is reliability, for if one of these ‘point-to-point’ segments has a break, it will only affect the two nodes on that link. Other computer users on the network continue to operate as if that segment were nonexistent.

Peer-to-Peer Networks

A peer-to-peer network allows two or more PCs to pool their resources together. Individual resources like disk drives, CD-ROM drives, and even printers are transformed into shared, collective resources that are accessible from every PC.

Unlike client-server networks, where network information is stored on a centralized file server PC and made available to tens, hundreds, or thousands client PCs, the information stored across peer-to-peer networks is uniquely decentralized. Because peer-to-peer PCs have their own hard disk drives that are accessible by all computers, each PC acts as both a client (information requestor) and a server (information provider). A peer-to-peer network can be built with either 10BaseT cabling and a hub or with a thin coax backbone. 10BaseT is best for small workgroups of 16 or fewer users that don’t span long distances, or for workgroups that have one or more portable computers that may be disconnected from the network from time to time.

After the networking hardware has been installed, a peer-to-peer network software package must be installed onto all of the PCs. Such a package allows information to be transferred back and forth between the PCs, hard disks, and other devices when users request it. Popular peer-to-peer NOS software includes

Most NOSs allow each peer-to-peer user to determine which resources will be available for use by other users. Specific hard & floppy disk drives, directories or files, printers, and other resources can be attached or detached from the network via software. When one user’s disk has been configured so that it is “sharable”, it will usually appear as a new drive to the other users. In other words, if user A has an A and C drive on his computer, and user B configures his entire C drive as sharable, user A will suddenly have an A, C, and D drive (user A’s D drive is actually user B’s C drive). Directories work in a similar fashion. If user A has an A & C drive, and user B configures his “C:WINDOWS” and “C:DOS” directories as sharable, user A may suddenly have an A, C, D, and E

drive (user A’s D is user B’s C:WINDOWS, and E is user B’s C:DOS). Did you get all of that?

Because drives can be easily shared between peer-to-peer PCs, applications only need to be installed on one computer–not two or three. If users have one copy of Microsoft Word, for example, it can be installed on user A’s computer–and still used by user B.

The advantages of peer-to-peer over client-server NOSs include:

· No need for a network administrator

· Network is fast/inexpensive to setup & maintain

· Each PC can make backup copies of its data to other PCs for security. By far the easiest type of network to build, peer-to-peer is perfect for both home and office use.

Client-Server Networks

In a client-server environment like Windows NT or Novell NetWare, files are stored on a centralized, high speed file server PC that is made available to client PCs. Network access speeds are usually faster than those found on peer-to-peer networks, which is reasonable given the vast numbers of clients that this architecture can support. Nearly all network services like printing and electronic mail are routed through the file server, which allows networking tasks to be tracked. Inefficient network segments can be reworked to make them faster, and users’ activities can be closely monitored. Public data and applications are stored on the file server, where they are run from client PCs’ locations, which makes upgrading software a simple task–network administrators can simply upgrade the applications stored on the file server, rather than having to physically upgrade each client PC.

In the client-server diagram below, the client PCs are shown to be separate and subordinate to the file server. The clients’ primary applications and files are stored in a common location. File servers are often set up so that each user on the network has access to his or her “own” directory, along with a range of “public” directories where applications are stored. If the two clients below want to communicate with each other, they must go through the file server to do it. A message from one client to another is first sent to the file server, where it is then routed to its destination. With tens or hundreds of client PCs, a file server is the only way to manage the often complex and simultaneous operations that large networks require.

Computer Networking is the very important and the crucial part of the Information Technology. Millions of the computers are networked together to form the Internet. Networking plays a important role in every kind of organization from small to medium sized, in Banks, Multinataional Companies, Stock Exchanges, Air Ports, Hospitals, Police Stations, Post Offices, Colleges, Universities, and even in home, in short networking plays an important role everywhere where computers are used. This article will be interesting for the students, network professionals and for the people who are interested in the computer networking


The birth of a new way of doing business

After graduating from college there is always a course or a book that sticks with us forever. For me, it’s always Steven L. Maxine’s “Organizational Behavior”. An avid fan of ethics and philosophy, this is a book I read for my one and only business course during my university years, and in it, all the theories and concepts I learned from my art class were practiced in a single textbook. – Everything applies to business law.
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Many years later, I worked for a marketing company with the worst organizational culture; Or as my book defines: the basic pattern of shared assumptions, values, and beliefs that are considered the right way to think and act on the problems and opportunities an organization faces. If an organization is a group of people who work interdependently for a purpose, my first experience in a marketing firm represents everything that goes wrong with organizational culture. In fact, it was a decaying culture, largely due to the lack of a strong business plan, an encouraging support structure, and the desire to make money before understanding the right way to build it.
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You see, my book explains, the evolution of creating a successful work environment is not a new curiosity. It actually extends to Plato and the human desire to reach personal and collective goals – which is another favorite of mine, Stephen R. Covey speaks in “7 Habits for Highly Effective People.” Creating mission statements and end goals helps individuals and organizations draw clear paths to guide them toward accomplishing what they are prepared to achieve.
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I am writing this article in an attempt to reconsider the nature of organizational behavior and structure applicable in today’s online marketing industry. For the world of online marketing, discussing productivity and its relationship to time is probably one of the topics you’ve covered before. We’ve all heard and read about Timothy Ferris bestseller “The Four Hour Work Week.” You may have come across a large collection of courses, podcasts and videos about the nature of productivity – what comes to mind right now is Ibn Pagan’s Wake Up Productivity. The famous blogger and author of “Blog Profits Blueprint”, Yaro Stark, teaches “The Real Secret to a 2-Hour Work Day”. What I want to do here is why productivity / time ratio is a constant topic among scholars and researchers and why many successful online marketing enthusiasts are fascinated by smart work instead of hard work.
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And so I started.

It all starts with … personality and individual value systems

Experts and researchers who have tried to catalog and evaluate the nature of personality are responsible for influential theories such as the “Big Five personality dimension” and the Myers-Briggs type indicator. These are two that you are probably already familiar with. How personality relates to different value systems is another issue that attracts people. Values, as defined in my book, are stable, evaluative beliefs that guide our choices for outcomes or course of action in different situations. So when you combine personality with values, it’s clear to understand why human makeup is so different and why it makes us all so unique. We value things like security, power, hedonism, universality, tradition, achievement, each of us exists in different proportions. The question that arises is how is it possible to combine the idea that in an organization we are supposed to come together to achieve a common goal, when we are individually separate?
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Organizational structure, in my textbook, refers to “the division of labor as well as the pattern of coordination, communication, work flow, and formal authority that governs organizational activities.” Or as Stephen Covey explains in detail in “The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People”, how an organization works with dependency, independence and interdependence among people and more – how an organization can reach organizational success when people are so different, all unique in their personality and values. With set.
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There are two elements of organizational structure that you are now quite familiar with – centralized organization and decentralized organization. Decentralization is what I want to focus on because it is becoming increasingly clear that the online marketing industry is becoming more decentralized as the company structure is leveled, and the bureaucracy is left out with changes like open-concept office space. My good old book defines organizational behavior as a way to spread decision-making authority and power across organizations, eliminates micromanagement, and allows individuals the freedom to set their own policies and strategies according to their own individual and value systems.
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How do I know that the organizational structure is being decentralized?

Type a job description into a craig’slist like a web developer or graphic designer and see the amount of companies that have posted job offers for freelancer and outsourcing options. Freelancing, be it for design or SEO, is becoming the most prominent way to assign work to corporations. Business owners today are even picking on the trend of outsourcing administrative work to virtual secretaries.
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Take Google for example. I invite you to watch this video to see what’s really going on within Google’s organizational structure. Google is essentially giving its employees the freedom to take care of their basic needs, their own domestic needs and personal aspirations in the workplace, all in an effort to be more productive at work. I’m not suggesting that companies should start thinking about bringing gourmet chefs into their cafeteria, but I’m saying that Google is finding a way to let employees master their own productivity. Instead, Google is considered one of the best places to work for http://money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/bestcompanies/2009/index.html and I can say with confidence that they are the most innovative and advanced. Company today.
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Now, you could say that when a company is a young start-up without years of experience, it’s important to closely monitor everyone’s work and allow the bureaucracy to reign as a component and catalyst for “true” productivity – AKA a 9-5 working days. You could also say that with experience comes the speed of productivity. These are elements that I am not ignoring in any way – there is absolute truth in both.
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However, I’m talking about stepping out of the strict values ​​of our Western society that indicate that “time is money” and working 12-hour workdays will help you reap the rewards of “real” success – AKA financial success. Another philosophy you’ve probably heard before is that the constant movement is the path to true happiness (closely related to ideas like “The Secret”). But if you look at success stories like Yaro Stark’s, you will see that he is right about prioritizing the appetite for money, bringing the element of balance and the desire for well-being.

By no means do I want to convey that I recommend for the mother to be inactive, but I do not want to give up.

So why is everyone in the online marketing industry eager to spend a working week? Why is everyone trying to find other ways to be productive?

Those who see great success in this industry are given the freedom to travel around the world, and to work from their laptops no matter where they are in the country or where they are on the beach. Following such a lifestyle is not only exclusive to the online marketing industry but with the advent of web technology, it is becoming more and more a reality for others in various industries.

Organizational structure will enable employees to experience a lifestyle that they see themselves living (certainly productive and contributing to their organization). Although personality and values ​​differ from person to person, our desire to live without our limitations is probably a universal desire.

Organizational culture should be changed to create employees who work smart, not hard. Making a profit is the ultimate goal of any organization, and the legitimacy of this requirement will never be disputed, but the realization of creating happy employees (such as Google employees), and the freedom to work in the most suitable environment for our individual. Choices are something that we see predominant because online marketing companies see more value in outsourcing. The importance of pursuing happiness and well-being is a complex goal in itself, but by giving employees a greater understanding of what they need and the freedom to meet those needs, we are probably moving towards a more successful formula of organizational culture and structure.

To give up, I will mention another word explored in my textbook: organizational commitment. What this term means is the emotional attachment, identification, and involvement of an employee with a particular organization. Organizational behavior scholars call this effective commitment because it refers to the individual’s feelings towards the organization. Perhaps the company’s goal should shift from creating hard workers to employee development who find satisfaction where they work. Happy employees are productive employees, and if flexibility is the answer, then organizational structures that lead to the freedom to work productively under set of policies that indicate for oneself something to enjoy and keep pace with.

Anna: Toronto

AKA is happily productive

Can blockchain co-exist with GDPR?

On May 25, 2018, a new privacy law came into force in Europe GDPR, or General Data Protection Regulation, and it gives EU citizens control over their personal data and what happens to it. That’s why you are bombarded with popups asking for your permission to collect and process your personal data. For the same reason e-mail newsletters ask you if you’re still interested in them and why many companies are suddenly making it easier to grab a copy of the data you have.

Companies around the world are rushing to make sure they comply with the GDPR because otherwise, they run the risk of paying hefty fines. However, blockchain technology is changing everything, so what happens when a blockchain contains personal data? The problem with blockchain data is:

  1. Open

  2. Transparent

  3. That is, immutable. Data stored in the blockchain cannot be changed or deleted.

These are features of this technology that cannot be changed and at the same time do not look very good for applying privacy.

Understand general data protection regulations

Before diving into GDPR compliance, let’s understand some commonly used terms:

  1. Data controller – Under EU law, companies that store your data are known as data controllers. Common examples would be Facebook, Google, Apple etc.
  2. Data processor – Companies that work to analyze your data are known as data processors. For example, Google Analytics, Moz Analytics, Socialblade, etc.

In most cases, the data controller and the data processor are the same entity, however, the burden of complying with GDPR rests on the data controller. Let’s make a note here, GDPR is effective only when personal information of EU citizens is involved. Any company that stores information on EU citizens must comply with regulations, including Facebook or Apple.

As stated in EU law Personal information is any information relating to an identified or identifiable natural person (‘data subject’); An identifiable natural person is one who can be directly or indirectly identified, especially a reference to an identifier such as a name, an identification number, location data, an online identifier or physical, physiological, physiological, genetic, mental, economic, Cultural or social identity. This is a broad definition, which means any data such as an IP address, a Bitcoin wallet address, a credit card or any exchange, if it can be linked to you directly or indirectly, can be defined as personal data.

3 GDPR articles that conflict with the blockchain feature

GDPR has three articles, Articles 16, 17 and 18 that make life difficult for companies planning to use a distributed laser network to conduct their business.

  1. Article 16: This GDPR article allows EU citizens to modify or modify the data in your data controller. You can not only change the existing data they have, but you can add new data if you think the current data is incorrect or incomplete. The problem is, on a distributed network, adding new data is not a problem but changing it.

  2. Article 17: This article refers to the “right to forget”. It is not possible to delete data from blockchain and therefore this article immediately conflicts with data protection regulations.

  3. Article 18: This article refers to the “right to restrict processing”. Basically, it prevents companies from using your data if the data is incorrect or if it is collected illegally.

One of the main concerns of a blockchain is that they are completely open, so anyone can get a copy of your data and do whatever they want with it. So, you have no control over who is processing your data.

Possible coexistence solution!

Pairing – A popular solution is to encrypt personal data before storing it on a distributed network. This means that only those who have the decryption key will be able to access the data. The moment this key is destroyed, the data becomes useless. This is acceptable in some countries, such as the UK, but there are others who argue that strong encryption is still the opposite. With the advancement of computing, it is only a matter of time before encryption can break down faster and personal data will be available again. The debate over encryption is still ongoing.

Permission Blockchain – In a public chain, anyone can put new data in the chain and the data is visible to everyone. However, in a permission blockchain, access is controlled and only a few known and trusted parties are granted. The network that distributes this permission complies with Article 18. But unfortunately, it does not comply with Article 17, and the right to forget. Even in a permission chain, the data is still unchanged and cannot be deleted or edited. One possible solution is to store data on a secure server with read and write access. We then save a reference to that data in our blockchain via a link using a hash function. We can save this hash in the blockchain. Hash functions are popular for verifying the integrity of files on our secure servers. Also, hash functions cannot be reverse engineered to express data. If we delete the server’s data, the hash function becomes useless and no longer becomes personal data.

This is not an elegant solution because blockchains are used because they are decentralized and you are back to centralization using a secure server.

Zero Knowledge Proof- Zero-6 Knowledge Protocol is a method by which one party (advocate) can prove to the other party (verifier) ​​that they know the value of x, they know the value of x without giving any information. This is perfect for verifying things like age-gates for example without disclosing birthday information with data collectors. Evidence of zero knowledge could be a possible solution to GDPR outside the blockchain.

How blockchain can reinvent the global supply chain

Since its emergence in 2008, the technology behind the world’s most infamous cryptocurrency, Bitcoin, has been courting the border, drawing attention from most startups and the financial services sector. However, it has recently started to get a lot of attention as companies are slowly realizing that it can be valuable for many other things besides payment tracking.

Simply put, a blockchain is a distributed ledger that sorts transactions into blocks. Each block is chained to the first one using sophisticated math until it returns to the first transaction. Entries are permanent, transparent, and searchable, making it possible for community members to view their entire transaction history. Each update creates a new “block”, added at the end of the “chain” – a structure that makes it difficult to correct records at a later stage. Ledger allows information to be recorded and shared among large groups of unrelated companies, and all members must collectively verify any updates – which are in everyone’s interest.

To date, a lot of attention and money has been spent on financial applications for technology. However, there is a global supply chain relationship in the case of an equally promising test, the complexity of which and the diversity of interests create exactly the kind of challenges that this technology seeks to address.

A simple application of the blockchain instance in the supply chain is to register the product transfer in the ledger, as the transaction will identify the parties involved, as well as the price, date, location, quality and condition of the product and any other information relevant to the supply chain operation. The cryptography-based and unchanging nature of the transaction will make it almost impossible to compromise with the laser.

Now, a number of startups and corporations are setting up blockchains to redesign their global supply chain and run their businesses more efficiently:

1. For Maersk, the world’s largest shipping company, the challenge is not to track the known rectangular shipping containers that sail the world by cargo ship. Instead, it is circling the pile of papers attached to each container. Stamps and approvals from 30 parties, including customs, tax officials and health authorities, may be required to spread across 200 or more interactions in a single container. Although containers can be loaded onto a ship within minutes, a container can be held at port for several days because a piece of paper is lost, and the cargo inside is lost. The cost of moving and keeping track of all these papers is often equal to the cost of physically moving the container around the world. The system is also prone to fraud because valuable bills of lading can be manipulated, or copied, allowing criminals to snatch goods or promote counterfeit goods, resulting in billions of dollars in maritime fraud each year.

Last summer, Maersk sought the cooperation of customs authorities, freight forwarders and manufacturers filling containers. It has begun the first trial of a new digital shipping laser with these partners for shipping routes between Rotterdam and Newark. After signing a document, the customs authority can immediately upload a copy of it with a digital signature, so that everyone else involved – including Maersk himself and other government authorities – can see that it has been completed. If there is a dispute later, everyone can go back to the record and be confident that none of them changed it. The cryptography involved makes it difficult to forge virtual signatures.

The second test tracked all the paperwork related to going from the port of Mombasa in Kenya to Rotterdam in the Netherlands in a flower pot. If both trials go well, Mersk tracks in containers with pineapple from Colombia and mandarin oranges from California.

2. Wal-Mart, like most merchants, struggles to identify and remove foods that need to be withdrawn. When a customer becomes ill, it can take weeks to identify the product, invoice, and seller. To remedy this, it announced last year that it would begin recording and logging product sources using blockchain – including suppliers, important data from a single receipt, details of how and where food was grown and who visited it. Extends information from the database palette to individual packages.

This enables it to instantly find out where a tainted product came from in a matter of minutes, as well as capture other important features for making informed decisions about food flow.

Wal-Mart has already completed two pilot programs – shifting pork from Chinese farms to Chinese stores and producing from Latin America to the United States – and is now convinced that a finished version can be assembled in a few years.

3. BHP relies on vendors at almost every stage of the mining process, collects samples by conducting contracts with geological and shipping companies, and conducts analysis that manages business decisions involving multiple parties distributed across the continent. These vendors usually keep track of rock and liquid samples and analyze with emails and spreadsheets. A lost file can cause big and expensive headaches because the samples help the company decide where to drill new wells.

BHP’s solution, launched this year, is to use blockchain to record the movements of wellbore rock and liquid samples, and to better secure real-time data generated during delivery. Decentralized file storage, multi-party data acquisition, and instability as well as instant accessibility are all aspects that will enhance its supply chain.

BHP is now forcing its vendors to use an app to collect live data – with a dashboard and the options for what to do are very streamlined for their respective tasks. A technician taking a sample can attach data such as during collection, a lab researcher can add a report, and it will be immediately visible to those who have access. No more lost samples or crazy messages. Although some components of the process are similar, the new system is expected to drive internal capabilities and allow BHP to work more efficiently with its partners.

For the time being, for the most part, the blockchain runs parallel to the company’s current system – often an old database or spreadsheet like Microsoft’s Excel. The hardest part will be creating new business models. Blockchain enterprise-wide deployments mean companies often have to scrap their existing business processes and start from scratch. An effort not for the faint of heart.

A brief history of Milnet

Milnet, an acronym for Military Network, was the name of the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET). It only carries unclassified information and was intended for use by U.S. Department of Defense traffic. In 1983, both ARPANET and MILNET split into two networks.

Subsequently, it was decided that ARPANET would dedicate itself entirely to supporting the academic research community and that MILNET would be used to transmit U.S. military information, thereby meeting the needs of the military. And direct disconnection between the two networks due to security. These two networks were built and operated by BBN Technologies and so they used the same technology.

The new standard rules and divisions believe that the ARPANET was originally created for military purposes. The development of the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP) and its decentralized structure helped ARPANET significantly develop into the 1980s. Milnet, on the other hand, which occupied 65 of the 113 nodes or connection points to secure military data, further expanded that it was included by the Defense Data Network (DDN). DDN is a set of global military networks used in various security levels.

In 1990, the landscape changed. The world has realized the potential of massive interconnection and this has led to the advent of the Internet. The military agencies that realized this possibility went for further expansion of MILNET. It began providing Internet Protocol (IP) connections to various US military bases at home and abroad.

It was then split into several networks, such as the Secret Internet Protocol Router Network (SIPRNET), the Non-Classified Internet Protocol Router Network (NIPRNET), and the Joint Worldwide Intelligence Communication System (JWICS). Today a part of MILNET that has become NIPRNET is used by the US military to exchange sensitive and classified data between internal users.

What is the future of cryptocurrency?

What will be the future of money? Imagine walking into a restaurant and looking at the digital menu board at your favorite combo meal. Only, instead of being priced at $ 8.99, it is shown as 009 BTC

Can crypto really be the future of money? The answer to this question depends on the overall consensus on various key decisions, from ease of use to safety and regulations.

Let’s examine both aspects of (digital) currency and compare and contrast traditional fiat money with cryptocurrency.

The first and most important element is faith.

It is essential that people believe in the currency they are using. What does the dollar value? Is it gold? No, the dollar has not been supported by gold since the 1970s. So is that what the dollar (or any other fiat currency) values? Currencies of some countries are considered to be more stable than others. Ultimately, it is the belief of the people that the paying government stands firmly behind it and essentially ensures its “value”.

How does trust work with Bitcoin since it is decentralized which means they are not a regulatory body that issues currencies? Bitcoin sits on the blockchain which is basically an online accounting ledger that lets the whole world see every transaction. Each of these transactions is verified by miners (operating a computer on a peer-to-peer network) to prevent fraud and to ensure that no double costs are incurred. In exchange for their services to maintain the integrity of the blockchain, miners pay for every transaction they verify. Since countless miners are trying to make money everyone checks to see if they are working for each other’s faults. This is proof of why the blockchain has never been hacked. Basically, this belief is what makes Bitcoin worthwhile.

Then look at the trust’s closest friend, security.

What if I have a bank robbery or fraudulent activity on my credit card? My bank deposit is under FDIC insurance. Chances are my bank will refund any charges on my card that I never did. This does not mean that criminals will not be able to stop stunts that are at least frustrating and time consuming. It is more or less the peace of mind that comes from knowing that I will probably recover from any wrong done to me.

In crypto, there are many choices about where to save your money. It is important to know if the transactions are insured for your protection There are reputable exchanges like Binance and Coinbase which have proven track record of correcting clients’ mistakes. The same is true of crypto, as there are fewer reputable banks around the world.

What if I threw a twenty dollar bill into the fire? The same is true for crypto. If I lose my sign-in credentials to a certain digital wallet or exchange, I will not be able to access those coins. Again, I can’t stress enough the importance of conducting business with a reputable company.

The next problem is scaling. Currently, this may be the biggest obstacle that prevents people from doing more transactions in the blockchain. When it comes to transaction speed, fiat money goes much faster than crypto. Visa can handle about 40,000 transactions per second. Under normal circumstances, a blockchain can handle about 10 operations per second. However, a new protocol is being developed that will increase to 60,000 transactions per second. Known as the Lightning Network, it could create the future crypto of money.

Conversations will not be complete without talking about benefits. What do people usually like about their traditional banking and spending methods? For those who like cash most of the time it is obviously easy to use. If you are trying to book a hotel room or a rental car, you need a credit card Personally, I use my credit card wherever I go for convenience, security and rewards.

Did you know that there are companies in the crypto space that provide all of this? Monaco is now issuing Visa logo-ad cards that automatically convert your digital currency into local currency.

If you have ever tried to pay someone, you know that the process can be very tedious and expensive. Blockchain transactions allow users to send crypto to anyone, no matter where they are, in just a few minutes. It’s cheaper and more secure than sending a bank wire.

There are other modern methods of money transfer that exist in both worlds. Take, for example, applications like Zelle, Venmo and Messenger Pay. These apps are used by millions of millennia every day. Did you know that they have started to include crypto as well?

The Square Cash app now has Bitcoin, and CEO Jack Dorsey says: “Bitcoin, for us, is not stopping buying and selling. We believe it is a transformative technology for our industry, and we want to learn as soon as possible.”

“Bitcoin allows more people to access the financial system,” he added.

While it is clear that Fiat costs still dominate most of our money transfer systems, the new crypto system is rapidly gaining ground. The evidence is everywhere. Before 2017, mainstream media coverage was hard to find. Bitcoin now covers almost every major business news outlet. From Forbes to Fidelity, they are all weighing in with their opinions.

What is my opinion? Perhaps the biggest reason Bitcoin is successful is because it is fair, inclusive and allows financial access to more people worldwide. Banks and large corporations see this as a threat to their very existence. They stand on the losing end of the world’s largest asset transfer.

Still indecisive? Ask yourself this question: “Do people have less faith in government and banks?”

Your answer to this question may be what determines the future of money.

Online Education – Revolutionary Education

Our world is changing every day. The technological boom has revolutionized the way people work. Innovative methods are emerging instead of the traditional methods of work. We understand the perceptual change in education, where both students and educators are leaning towards information and technology to improve the quality and speed of education.

Education has entered a new phase where the Internet is fast becoming an important complement to traditional mediums of education such as textbooks and classrooms. Over the past decade, the flaws in classroom teaching have become more pronounced. As a result, young people are turning to online guidance to help them cope with the stress of work, which has finally created e-learning, live virtual classes, online tutors and discussion forums as popular study choices for today’s generation.

Education is an investment for the future. And online education is one of the fastest growing levels of education. Higher education institutions are increasingly embracing online education and the number of students enrolled in distance programs in colleges and universities around the world is increasing rapidly.

The many benefits of online education have made it an essential tool in today’s world. It helps to give students an unparalleled autonomy. With increasing competition, additional professional qualifications have become mandatory and online courses provide an easy option to easily follow the desired additional course. Even online study materials are easily accessible from anywhere, anytime.

The best part of online learning is that the classes are quite flexible which even gives students the ability to control their learning environment as they move through their curriculum at their own pace.. This eliminates the need for private tutoring as students can easily access educational sites to get instant help from online tutors. The constant availability of online help creates a thorough understanding of complex topics, thus helping the student to get those important extra marks.

The combination of internet and education has made learning possible anytime, anywhere. The learning process has become decentralized due to internet technology. Students can live in a remote village but still have easy access to pioneers and experts in any field of knowledge. It supports both affordable and flexible learning from the comfort of their home.

Not only that, online learning also includes innovative learning tools that make learning a fun process. The elements included in virtual education help to turn any silly subject, subject and subject matter into a curiosity.

It is true that online education offers good quality multimedia tools to make learning a better experience. In fact, the extra use of color, pictures, images, videos and audio helps to make difficult ideas more interesting and easier to memorize. This method of study certainly increases attention span, thus, improving retraction speed and better retention. Above all, it makes learning more fun – or interesting – which makes it more effective.

Online learning facilitates a more interactive learning environment because students can easily access the class on demand service to communicate with online tutors and discuss their doubts and questions without hesitation. These online tutors provide both academic support and counseling to motivate students who later try to give their best shots by excelling in their academic pursuits.

Cryptocurrency and taxation challenges

Cryptocurrencies have been in the news recently because tax authorities believe they could be used for money laundering and tax evasion. Even the Supreme Court has recommended appointing a special inquiry team on black money to discourage trade in such currencies. Although China has reportedly banned some of its largest bitcoin trading operators, countries such as the United States and Canada have laws restricting stock trading in cryptocurrencies.

What is cryptocurrency?

Cryptocurrency, as the name implies, uses encrypted code to execute a transaction. These codes are recognized by other computers in the user community. Instead of using paper money, an online ledger is updated by a general accounting entry. The buyer’s account is debited and such currency is credited to the seller’s account.

How are transactions made in cryptocurrency?

When a user initiates a transaction, his computer sends a public cipher or public key that communicates with the recipient’s personal cipher. If the recipient accepts the transaction, it encloses a portion of the primary computer code in a block of a few encrypted codes known to each user on the network. Special users, known as ‘miners’, can solve a cryptographic puzzle by adding additional code to publicly shared blocks and earning more cryptocurrency in the process. Once a mine confirms a transaction, the block record cannot be changed or deleted.

Bitcoin, for example, can also be used on mobile devices to facilitate purchases. All you have to do is let the receiver scan a QR code from an app on your smartphone or bring them face to face using Near Field Communication (NFC). Keep in mind that this is like a normal online wallet like PayTM or MobiQuick.

Die-hard users swear by the decentralized nature of Bitcoin, international recognition, anonymity, transaction stability and data protection. Unlike paper money, no central bank controls inflationary pressures on cryptocurrencies. The transaction ledger is stored on a peer-to-peer network. This means that the computing power of each computer chip and the copy of the database are stored in each node of the network. Banks, on the other hand, store transaction data in central repositories that are in the hands of individuals employed by the firm.

How can cryptocurrency be used for money laundering?

The fact that the central bank or tax authorities have no control over cryptocurrency transactions means that transactions cannot always be tagged to a specific person. This means that we do not know whether the transaction has been legally received by the value store. The transaction store is similarly suspicious because no one can say what was considered for the currency received.

What does Indian law say about this type of virtual currency?

Virtual currencies or cryptocurrencies are generally viewed as pieces of software and are therefore classified as a good under the Sales Act, 1930.

As it is good, indirect tax will be levied on their sale or purchase as well as GST will be levied on the services provided by the miners.

There is still considerable confusion as to whether cryptocurrencies are legal tender in India, and the RBI, which has authority over clearing and payment systems and prepaid negotiable instruments, has certainly not allowed buying and selling through these exchanges.

Any cryptocurrency obtained by a resident of India will thus be regulated by the Foreign Exchange Management Act, 1999 as import of goods into this country.

India has allowed Bitcoin trading on special exchanges for built-in protection against tax evasion or money laundering activities and enforcement of the Know Your Customer rules. These exchanges include Zebpay, Unocoin and Coinsecure.

For example, those who are investing in Bitcoin will be charged on the dividends they receive.

The return on capital gains due to the sale of securities involving virtual currency is also an income and as a result tax is required to file an IT return online.

If your investment in this currency is large, you are better off getting help from a personalized tax service. Online platforms have come a long way in simplifying the tax compliance process.

Is blockchain technology really the future of the Internet?

1. Killing a trusted third party:

Blockchain unchanged, scrambled, decentralized – each centralized way of recording, actions and associations has the power to be completely self-governing. This means we can dispose of mediators, experts and lose the trust of third parties. In this way, every business, administration and non-profit movement is streamlined.

The appearance of headlines, title protection, and countless small exchange charges for a home loan ebb and flow scene requires a mind-blowing web that is important to keep the structure moving. These structures exist on the premise that, in fact, land exchange is a method that requires a great deal of trust in the records of history. However, the blockchain will address these concerns, and a specific asset record may have a clear and authoritative history of exchanges, limiting the need for the Foundation to facilitate opportunities and keep stock in the administration, rather the exchange may exist within it. Own rights.

2. Blockchain in 2018 – Bitcoin of the Past:

The subtle improvement of Bitcoin in 2017 has driven this improved cash, the sustainable quality of the important development used by the blockchain, and the favorable conditions. In 2017, the blockchain has transformed into the second most standard look term and the scattered record progress will continue to increase the importance of the various industries that are transversely finished. Blockchain efforts will surpass conveyor figuring and IoT in financing theory. Countries with official blockchain strategies like Malta are expected to drive closer to the market.

3. Guaranteeing a secure internet in the future:

The primary advantage that blockchain offers over other record programming is that it relies on cryptography and changes to be unchanged, no one can backpad at a certain point in the blockchain and change data. For 10 years of blockchain presence, it has never been hacked and will continue to do so as long as the technology survives.

4. Blockchain for digital advertising:

Computerized promotions face difficulties, for example, extortion from space, bot navigation, lack of simplicity, and extensive installment models. The problem is that the stimuli are not adjusted, making both promoters and distributors feel that they are on the losing side of the system. Blockchain is the answer to the simplicity of the store network because it naturally leads the trust to an unbelievable situation.

5. Impact of Money Streaming on Business:

We have become so familiar with the fortnightly or regular fixed wage gap that we accept it as paid business and labor. However, 2018 marks the year when it is no longer a necessary value. An exceptionally powerful feature of blockchain innovation is the small scale installment. Another strong deal. These can be joined on interesting routes, one of which is to make cash. Despite the fact that it was expected many years ago, the reality of the matter is happening as expected at this time

Ultimately, blockchain is a great technology to store a huge amount of documentation needed to use, for example, human services, integration, copyright and more. Blockchain eliminates the need for an agent to approve a contract.

In the case of blockchain usage

Blockchain is the name given to a block of transactions connected together in a chain. Originally created to support cryptocurrency, bitcoin, blockchain technology and have the potential to revolutionize our lives, the economy and the world. The biggest thing about blockchain is that all transactions are public. This means you can get everything back to its origin.

For example, imagine a foodborne illness spreading. Contamination will be able to track back to the supermarket and product source from the dinner plate. Let’s take this clarity one step further. We live in an armed society. Many arms are being traded illegally. Blockchain technology will not only eliminate illicit transactions, but will also be a way to hold the source of the illicit arms trade accountable. In addition to allowing transactions to become public, blockchain transactions are also fast.

Blockchain could potentially replace existing trading platforms because investors who sell stocks through blockchain will usually have instant access to their funds instead of waiting time. Transactions made in a blockchain are extremely fast, low cost, and most importantly more secure than many, if not all platforms. Security is a huge factor in transforming the blockchain world that we know. Because of its design, blockchain is basically unhackable. Its transaction ledgers are decentralized, which means that a copy of that transaction exists and needs to be verified by the node. Once a transaction is verified, it is “sealed” in a block and it is almost impossible to change it. Because this platform is so secure, it can be used as a voting medium in the United States and even worldwide.

There are many allegations of corruption and fraud that using blockchain will allay those fears. Again, everything is public. It’s instantaneous. And it is very safe. There will be no worries about change of vote or non-counting of votes. Irreversible laser will confirm this. In addition to being universal, reliable and secure, Bitcoin is also extremely affordable. For most transactions, this will eliminate the intermediary. There will not be much need for a third party to conduct or review the transaction. Businesses don’t have to waste security costs to prevent fraud because blockchain covers it. Businesses will be able to use blockchain to evaluate their own supply chain and identify inefficiencies.

You find it interesting how Blockchain started out as a small platform to support Bitcoin and now, this technology is bigger than it was created to support it. Although blockchain technology is relatively new, there are many advantages that are too good to ignore. Blockchain technology is transparent. All transactions take place across a public ledger. Blockchain technology is both fast and affordable. And finally, blockchain technology is safe and secure.